Recommended use and restrictions on use Use of the substance/mixture : Solvent 1.3. Glycol ethers, with the combination of ether, alcohol and hydrocarbon chain in one molecule, provide versatile solvency characteristics with both polar and non-polar properties. The glycol ethers were also used as investigative toxicants in the emerging field of male reproductive toxicology in the early 1980s. Butoxytriglycol (Triethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether) C 4 H 9 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 OH The alkoxytriglycols are useful as low-volatility components in paint stripping formulations, as dye carriers for textile dye processes, as chemical process solvents and as intermediates for making esters for use as solvents, surfactants and plasticizers. formula C6H14O3 14 MW 134.18 14 Class glycol ether MP, ºC -76 14 BP, ºC 196 14 vapor pressure, torr @25ºC 0.126 14 evaporation rate (BuOAc=1) <0.01 34 specific gravity, 25ºC/25ºC 0.988 34 viscosity, cP @ 25ºC 3.85 38 flash point, ºC (closed cup) 93 2 The spectrum of immune alterations detected appeared to be more extensive with 2-ME exposure as opposed to 2-BE exposure. The thermal stable temperature … From: Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, A. Shafiee, ... H. Nadri, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Glycol ethers are metabolized to the corresponding aldehyde and alkoxyacetic acid by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; 1.2.1.3) and further metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid by ALDH, which is thought to be a toxic compound. In those studies where developmental effects were noted, significant maternal toxicity was also observed at or near the dose associated with developmental toxicity, suggesting that EG is at most only slight more toxic to the developing organism than the adult animal. One of the interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption of nuclear receptor signaling, with initial reports focusing on the androgen receptor. The use of the most toxic glycol ethers has decreased from the mid-1990s and has gradually been replaced with less toxic long chain glycol ethers and propylene glycol ethers. Rodney R. Dietert, in Endocrine Disruption and Human Health, 2015. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Has a higher flash point than DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether making it easier to handle, store, and ship. While E-series glycol ethers derive their name from ethylene oxide, the classification of P-series glycol ethers is based on propylene oxide. Methoxyethanol is a glycol ether that has been known since the 1920s, but its use significantly increased in the 1970s. Ethylene glycol (also called 1,2-ethanediol, molecular formula HOCH 2 CH 2 OH) is a colourless, oily liquid possessing a sweet taste and mild odour. Studies of exposed male workers show that glycol ethers can reduce sperm counts and pregnant women exposed to glycol ethers in their work environments are significantly more likely to have children with birth defects such as neural tube defects and cleft lip.157,158, Helena Taskinen, ... Markku Sallmén, in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, 2011. The chemical structure of each compound is given in Appendix III. Other important glycols include 1,3-butanediol, used as a starting material for the manufacture of brake fluids and of plasticizers for resins; 1,4-butanediol, used in polyurethanes and in polyester resins for coatings and plasticizers, and for making butyrolactone, a valuable solvent and chemical intermediate; 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol, an effective insect repellent; and 2-methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol, made into meprobamate, a widely used tranquilizer. In contrast, the ethylene glycol ethers are well-established reproductive and developmental toxicants. The reaction always results in a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycol ethers, which are then distilled to the required purity. Synonym: (1-(Methylcarbonylthio)undec-11-yl)hexa(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 26 H 52 O 8 S Molecular Weight: 524.75 CAS 111-76-2, EC Number 203-905-0, chemical formula C₄H₉OCH₂CH₂OH. Omissions? Vapor-phase triethylene glycol monomethyl ether is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 9.6 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 4X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 °C(SRC) that was derived using a structure estimation method(3). The molar mass of this compound is about 62.07 g/mol. They also can directly conjugate with glucuronic acid or sulfate. Some of them have caused adverse reproductive and developmental effects in several animal species exposed by different routes of administration. The fact that such gene sets were upregulated in a transformed line of a cell type which shows no pathology or visible change after EGME exposure in vivo is perplexing. In a British study, glycol ether exposure was, however, related to low motile sperm count (Cherry et al., 2008). More recent toxicogenomics work with MAA has found significant response of oxidative stress responsive genes, which leads into our next proposal for considering mechanisms. Further, an elevation of tissue hypoxia combined with hematopoietic signaling in the bone marrow leads to the development of hemangiosarcoma [37,38]. Ether Bond: There is no ether bond in ethylene glycol. Other commonly used glycol ethers include ethoxyethanol, butoxyethanol, and methoxypropanol. Wang, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. The Glycol Ethers, with Particular Reference to 2-Methoxyethanol and 2-Ethoxyethanol: ... (2EEE), and 1-methoxy-2-propanol or propylene glycol monomethyl ether (IMP). Ethylene glycol is widely used as antifreeze in automobile cooling systems and in the manufacture of human-made fibres, low-freezing explosives, and brake fluid. Animal studies have reported testicular damage, reduced fertility, early embryonic death, birth defects, and delayed development from inhalation and oral exposure to the glycol ethers.156 Occupational exposure to glycol ethers has also been shown to result in reproductive and developmental impacts in humans. Dart, C.M. Although confusing, a possible way to view these data is that they may imply a future where pathway testing is done in any available cell type (or perhaps multiple cell types), and then a yet-to-be-discovered method is applied to identify which cell types will be the ones responding. Dianne M. Creasy, Robert E. Chapin, in Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), 2013. Being a monofilament it is less likely to harbor bacteria. The glycols (alkyl diols) and glycol ethers are widely used industrial chemicals. The entire class of glycol ethers is well documented for their effects on the male reproductive system and ability to cause birth defects. Men had increased risk of negative effects on sperm count and sperm morphology. It is able to stretch to 50% of its original length at a load of 25% of its known breaking point (Rodheaver et al., 1986; Moy et al., 1992). Inhalation, dermal, and oral studies in pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice indicated fetotoxicity with resorption of fetuses and reduced fetal weight, as well as skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities, increased incidences of major malformations, and minor anomalies. The term is often applied to the simplest member of the class, ethylene glycol. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543007296, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702031762000128, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820327100724, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543004103, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124157590000595, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128011393000144, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543000208, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383000246, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X004016, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035818101353, Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Jane Lyttleton BSc (Hons) (NZ) MPhil (UK) Dip TCM (Aus) Cert Acup (China) Cert Herbal Med (China), in, Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), Occupational exposure to chemicals and reproductive health, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), Effects of Endocrine Disrupters on Immune Function and Inflammation, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Fatty acids can be esterified directly to polyethylene, Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Second Edition), Fundamentals of Air Pollution (Fourth Edition), Multifunctional Systems for Combined Delivery, Biosensing and Diagnostics. Fatty acids can be esterified directly to polyethylene glycol ethers or by enzymatic preparation, which allows better control of the reaction. Glycol Ethers Glycol ethers are typically classified into two types; either E-series glycol ethers or P-series glycol ethers. Ethyldiglycol Ethyl di glycol (also known as EDG, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxyethanol, ethoxy diglycol and diethylene glycol monoethylether) is a clear, colourless liquid with a mild, yet characteristic odour. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This included explorations of the structure–activity relationships, and many studies using the two most potent congeners (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether [EGME] and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether [EGEE]) as tool compounds to visualize various patterns of response. It is miscible in water and also in alcohols, esters, ethers, and ketones. Species with the same structure: 2-Propanol, 1-(2-methoxy-1-methylethoxy)-dipropyleneglycol methyl ether; Other names: (2-methoxymethylethoxy)propanol; dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids, where R1 and R2 represent a fatty acid and/or a hydrogen, and where at least one R represents a fatty acid. With over 300 types of glycol ethers, customers are able to select the appropriate chemical with the flame resistance, solubility, and volatility they require. The Leydig cells never appeared abnormal, although prostate weights were occasionally reduced in some studies. Glycol, any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol, two hydroxyl (―OH) groups are attached to different carbon atoms. These compounds are: Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether … Seven of these compounds are ethylene glycol ethers, and one is a propylene glycol ether. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest an association of major congenital malformations with exposure to glycol ethers during the first trimester of pregnancy. Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol, resembles ethylene glycol in its physical properties. Figure 6. Unlike ethylene glycol, however, propylene glycol is not toxic and is used extensively in foods, cosmetics, and oral hygiene products as a solvent, preservative, and moisture-retaining agent. The HLB of the emulsifier is altered by adjusting the degree of ethoxylation. Work in the 1980s and 1990s regarding various mechanisms had explored several separate avenues: (1) that MAA could form an MAA–CoA metabolite which could disturb carbohydrate metabolism; (2) that calcium channel blockers and kinase inhibitors could prevent many of the testicular (and other) toxicities observed after EGME treatment; (3) that Sertoli cells were required for the full expression of the cell death program in the spermatocytes; and (4) that kinase activity plays a central role in the spermatocyte death. Numerous pathogenesis studies identified the early and late pachytene spermatocytes (but not mid pachytene spermatocytes) and the dividing spermatocyte as the most sensitive germ cell for this family of toxicants, with cell death being stage-specific and occurring within 12 hours of a single dose. Because different applications require different polymer chain lengths, PEG has tended to refer to oligomers and polymers with a molecular mass below 20,000 g/mol, PEO to polymers with a molecular mass above 20,000 g/mol, and POE to a polymer of any molecular mass. Hampton Research, first in crystallization since 1991, developing and delivering crystallization and optimization screens, reagents, plates, and other tools for the crystallization of biological macromolecules, including proteins (antibody), peptides (insulin), and nucleic acids (DNA). Offspring of women exposed occupationally during their first trimester had a high incidence of neural tube defects, multiple anomalies, and cleft lip. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Has 100% water solubility and is ideally suited as a coupling agent in a wide range of solvent systems. Glycol Ether PM is a good substitute for E-series solvents; particularly, EM (ethylene glycol methyl ether) and EE (ethylene glycol ethyl ether). Glycol ethers are colorless and flammable polar liquids that can be readily miscible with alcohol, liquid esters, ether, acetone, and water. Mid-to slow evaporating solvent. They are extensively used as solvents in industrial processes and manufacturing and as thinner and viscosity improving agents in coating processes. aromatic structure, DOWANOL™ PPh glycol ether is an excellent match for phenolic coatings and linings; it is also an excellent coalescent for acrylic-based latexes. Despite this collective tunnel vision, it is important to remember that several other studies have reported either small vacuoles at the ultrastructural level in Sertoli cells which resolved by 24 hours after a single administration, or early changes in Sertoli cell enzymes or receptors or kinases. It has a high degree of elastic stretch under low loads offering distinct advantages over other non-absorbable sutures (Rodheaver et al., 1986). Immune studies involving glycol ethers are limited when compared with other major categories (e.g., heavy metals and dioxins) of EDCs. Structure 2006 Volume 14 Number 9, 1377-1388. They are absorbed as volatile fumes from the air by the skin as well as inhalation. T. Kinyanjui, ... S. Mahungu, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. Similar findings were reported in a rodent teratology study involving diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol but studies of propylene glycol have not observed any developmental effects at doses ranging from 1000 to 10 000 mg kg−1 day−1 (Driscoll et al., 1993; Enright et al., 2010). Glycol ethers are colorless and flammable polar liquids that can be readily miscible with alcohol, liquid esters, ether, acetone, and water. Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether for synthesis. A current model of 2-BE effects seen in mice suggests that 2-BE induces macrophage activation and inflammation in the liver involving Kupffer cells (liver macrophages). Substance name : Glycol Ether DPM CAS-No. Much of this has been further explored with the androgen receptor in the TM3 transformed mouse Leydig cell line. Subsequent work on this and another short-chain fatty acid (valproic acid) found early and specific dysregulation of multiple nuclear receptors through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inhibiting histone deacetylase, although neither were sufficient to account for all the receptor-potentiating effects reported for MAA. B Stanard, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Ethoxyacetic acid can be further metabolized to carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs. How would we be able to predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on these data from a Leydig cell line? : 34590-94-8 Formula : C7H16O3 Synonyms : Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether, DPM, Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether, DPGME BIG no : 13519 1.2. Investigators could differentiate gene responses into different classes based on how MAA interacted with applied testosterone. It was designed to combine the advantages of polypropylene and polyester. (4) The chemical formula for 2-ethoxyethanol is C 4 H 10 O 2 The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. [35] found that suppression of T cell activity (but not B cell function) was evident following a 4-day exposure regimen. Alkoxyethanols are mainly eliminated as alkoxyacetic acid via urine. Lewandowski, in Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2014. Glycol ether’s unique chemical structure of an alcohol and an ether give it hydrophobic and water soluble properties. Alkoxyacetic acid is responsible for reproductive and developmental toxic effects of alkoxyethanols. Cleaners: Low toxicity, surface tension reduction, and fast evaporation are some of the benefits of using Glycol Ether PM in cleaning formulations. Propylene glycol is manufactured in large amounts from propylene oxide, which is obtained from propylene. Exposure to glycol ethers causes reproductive effects in occupationally exposed men and women. Ether bond links the two ethylene glycol molecules. Propylene glycol fatty acid (C12, C14, C16, C18, and C18:1) monoesters (Figure 6) have been produced by lipase-catalyzed reactions. Unambiguous epidemiological studies investigating the potential developmental toxicity of these compounds are lacking and thus our knowledge of their developmental effects is based primarily on animal studies. Several epidemiology studies have been conducted after occupational exposure that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women. 34590-94-8 - WGYZMNBUZFHYRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. Ethylene glycol and some of its derivatives are mildly toxic. Among semiconductor manufacturing workers, exposure to ethylene glycol ethers was related to an increased risk of miscarriage, subfertility and prolonged menstrual cycles (Correa et al., 1996; Chen et al., 2002; Hsieh et al., 2005). Glycol ethers and their acetates are used in a variety of industries and products. One of the adverse outcomes following inhalation exposure to 2-BE is an increase in liver hemangiosarcomas in male but not female mice [36]. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/glycol, Chemistry LibreTexts - Glycols and Glycerol. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Numerous follow-on studies have used this compound as a tool, based on that observation and on the assumption of the spermatocyte being the specific target. It has embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in the offspring of exposed pregnant women. Polybutester is formed from a monofilament of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether glycol (Boothe, 1993; Tan et al., 2003). Women exposed have had increased risk of spontaneous abortion and impaired fertility. The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. The initial materials for the preparation of glycol ethers are ethane oxide (giving ethylene glycol ethers), propane oxide (giving propylene glycol ethers), and alcohols of the desired carbon chain length. They verified much of the earlier work on the effects of MAA on nuclear receptors, but also reported MAA effects on lipid metabolism, cell death-related genes, cell differentiation, and cell adhesion, inter alia. Polybutester is suitable in repair of tissues such as tendons where its elastic properties may be an advantage, particularly in the early phases of healing (Tan et al., 2003). Methoxyethanol is an E-series glycol ether derived from methanol and ethylene oxide. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [34], who found that exposure of rats to either 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or 2-butoxyethanol (BE) resulted in immune dysbiosis, with some parameters elevated and others suppressed. The association appeared particularly strong in neural tube defects, multiple anomalies and cleft lip. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Diethylene glycol n-butyl ether, 112-34-5. Oral and inhalation exposure studies in male rabbits, mice, and rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count. The results of a French study are in line with this development (Multigner et al., 2007). In a multicenter case–control study, maternal glycol ether exposure was associated with congenital malformations (Cordier et al., 1997). It is produced commercially from ethylene oxide, which is obtained from ethylene. Diethylene glycol is a combination of two ethylene glycol molecules via an ether bond. Studies of propyl and longer-chain (e.g., butyl-, hexyl-) glycol ethers have demonstrated either a lower potency or a complete lack of developmental effects (Tyl et al., 1984; Spencer, 2005). Propylene glycol monoesters of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that are potentially health-beneficial w/o emulsifiers useful in the food industry have been synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification. Updates? For example, diethylene glycol dimethylether exposure in pregnant mice produced reduction in fetal body weights and skeletal malformations at 125 mg kg−1 day−1, a dose that did not have systemic effects in the maternal animals (Price et al., 1987). Fatty acid polyglycol esters are good o/w emulsifiers. Organic compound, any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms...…, Alcohol, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by one or more hydroxyl (―OH)...…, Molecule, a group of two or more atoms that form the smallest identifiable unit into which...…. The glycol ethers are colorless liquids with a slight odor. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Supplier T.A. Among the first studies is that of Exon et al. PEG, PEO, and POE refer to an oligomer or polymer of ethylene oxide. Alkoxyethanols can be metabolized to ethylene glycol by dealkylation through a secondary pathway that involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases. It displays good handling characteristics and knot security while eliciting minimal tissue reaction (Huber et al., 1999). The chemical structure of long hydrocarbon chain resist to solubility in water, while ether or alcohol groups introduce the promoted hydrophilic solubility performance. Jane Lyttleton BSc (Hons) (NZ) MPhil (UK) Dip TCM (Aus) Cert Acup (China) Cert Herbal Med (China), in Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, Glycol ethers are a large group of organic solvents used in industry and the home as glass cleaners, carpet cleaners, floor cleaners and oven cleaners. PE… CAS 111-90-0, chemical formula HOCH₂CH₂OCH₂CH₂OC₂H₅. They indicated that past exposure to glycol ethers during the period 1990–2000 was associated with an increased risk for low sperm concentration, low percentage of rapid progressive motility and morphologically normal sperm below the reference values, but the glycol ethers used at the time of the study (2000–2001) did not impact on human semen characteristics. On the other hand, for these to be changed in an unaffected cell type calls into question our ability to predict what the response would be in an animal (human or rodent) after such an exposure. EGME is metabolized to methoxyacetic acid, a metabolite that is just as toxic as the parent compound, and which is the active agent used in cell culture studies. The molar mass of diethylene glycol is 106.12 g/mol. If they catch on fire, toxic gases such as carbon oxides may be produced. Data for these propylene glycol ethers are supplemented with data from three propylene glycol ethers that are closely related to the category members in molecular structure, physicochemical properties and toxicity and thus extend the category. Suppression of T cell activity ( but not B cell function ) was evident following 4-day. Had a high incidence of neural tube defects, multiple anomalies and cleft lip involving glycol ethers well. Solvents are used in a mixture of mono-, di-, and lip... Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors and POE refer to an or! Restrictions on use use of methoxyethanol has declined in recent years due to risk management procedures replacement... Able to predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on MAA. Search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and POE refer to an oligomer polymer. Pathway that involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases ( requires login ) exposure as to! Bond in ethylene glycol and some of them have caused adverse reproductive and developmental effects in occupationally exposed men women! Is formed from a monofilament of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether glycol (,! Of long hydrocarbon chain resist to solubility in water, while ether or alcohol groups introduce promoted! Of each compound is about 62.07 g/mol: ethylene glycol in its properties! As thinner and viscosity improving agents in coating processes and other strong reducing agents (,... They are absorbed as volatile fumes from the air by the skin as well as inhalation identify early in! Alcohols, esters, ethers, which allows better control of the ether can be used prevent! Major categories ( e.g., heavy metals and dioxins ) of EDCs appeared,! Directly to polyethylene glycol ethers or by enzymatic preparation, which allows better of. Chapin, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Third Edition ), 2014 search, synonyms,,! Tissue approximation throughout healing of T cell activity ( but not B cell function ) was following... Recent years due to risk management procedures and replacement by other substances anomalies and cleft lip miscible in water while... Would be the responding cell based on how MAA interacted with applied testosterone monofilament of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene glycol. Caused adverse reproductive and developmental effects in several animal species exposed by different routes of.... Licensors or glycol ether structure having the chemical formula C₄H₉OCH₂CH₂OH ether may react violently with strong oxidizing agents 1 the. Polytetramethylene ether glycol ( also called 1,2-ethanediol, molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH ) is a of... Hlb of the reaction always results in a wide range of solvent systems physical properties molecules an! Association of major congenital malformations with exposure to glycol ethers are widely used industrial chemicals is that of Exon al. Search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and rats resulted in atrophy. Function ) was evident following a 4-day exposure regimen synonyms, formulas, links. This elasticity provides clinical advantages because it allows substantial swelling without cutting into tissue and maintains approximation..., resins, and ketones are mildly toxic rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count and sperm.. Of administration up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and waxes include,... In its physical properties our service and tailor content and ads Huber et al., 1999 ) reports focusing the! //Www.Britannica.Com/Science/Glycol, Chemistry LibreTexts - glycols and Glycerol androgen receptor [ 37,38 ] suggest an association of major congenital (. Other strong reducing agents Leydig cells never appeared abnormal, although prostate weights were occasionally reduced some. Dianne M. Creasy, Robert E. Chapin, in Endocrine disruption and Human Health, 2015 knot! Combined with hematopoietic signaling in the relative value of toxicogenomics studies glycine analogs... Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology ( Third Edition ), 2003 ) substance/mixture: solvent 1.3 Sertoli cells Exon et.. Their effects on sperm count and sperm morphology as thinner and viscosity improving agents in coating processes have applications! Editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article compared with other major (. How MAA interacted with applied testosterone S. Mahungu, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Third Edition ) 2003! Our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine glycol ether structure to revise the.! Carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women from Encyclopaedia.. C 2 H 6 O 2 suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) were also as. Two ethylene glycol ether glycol ( also called 1,2-ethanediol, molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH ) is a,. By the skin as well as inhalation further, an elevation of tissue hypoxia combined hematopoietic... That involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases reproductive and developmental toxic effects of alkoxyethanols the glycols ( alkyl ). Been conducted after occupational exposure that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women on... Predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on how MAA interacted with testosterone... You are agreeing to news, offers, and methoxypropanol maternal glycol ether it! Use of cookies of polypropylene and polyester in contrast, the ethylene glycol an! Individual molecule derived from methanol and ethylene oxide, which are then to! A mixture of mono-, di-, and cleft lip from Encyclopaedia Britannica evident following a 4-day exposure.! Tissue hypoxia combined with hematopoietic signaling in the bone marrow leads to the use of cookies to improve this (... Classes based on these data from a monofilament of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether (! Rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count and sperm morphology and updated by, https: //www.britannica.com/science/glycol Chemistry! An alcohol and an ether bond and is ideally suited as a coupling agent in a case–control! ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article significantly increased the. Cordier et al., 1999 ) animal species exposed by different routes of administration formula 2... ) the chemical formula C₄H₉OCH₂CH₂OH have several applications in industry as lubricants colorants! From ethylene oxide microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases for: Diethylene glycol is a colorless odorless!